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Citation Guides

MLA Style Guides and Examples

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MLA Book                         MLA Entry         

Examples of MLA Citations

In-Text Citations​:

Scientists hold the "octopus as a counterexample to the established notion that where consciousness exists, it is unified" (Carls-Diamante 1270). 

​​Godfrey-Smith takes a broad look at the origin of consciousness in the ocean (6). 

Works Cited Entry​:

​Godfrey-Smith, Peter. Other minds: The octopus, the sea, and the​ deep origins of consciousness. Farrar, Straus and

Giroux., 2016. 

Carls-Diamante, Sidney, et al. "The octopus and the unity of consciousness." Biology & Philosophy, vol. 32, no. 6, 2017,

pp. 1269–1287. ProQuest, doi: 10.1007/s10539-017-9604-0

Terms of Interest - MLA

Author: Last name, comma, First Name Middle Name If there is NO AUTHOR, use the organization name or list entry by title.

Jane Sally Doe = Doe, Jane Sally 

Jane Sally Doe and Mary Lane = Doe, Jane Sally, and  and Mary Lane (for 2 authors, only invert the first author's name)

Jane Sally Doe and Mary Lane and Rich Tomas = Doe, Jane Sally, et al. (for 3+ authors, list first author and "et al.")

No Author / Organization = American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

No Author = Article title

Title: Book Titles are Italicized, articles are in "quotations"

Article title = "Development and Validation of the Active Empathetic Listening Scale." 

Book Title = Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend. 

Publication: Journals or Newspapers (Italicized) Not a Book!

The New York Times


Volume: Volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated. (Italicized)

Issue:  Issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year.  In ( ) , Not Italicized!

Journal started twelve years ago and published three times this year = 12(3)

Newspaper four years old and this is the fifth publication this year = 4(5)

Publisher: Who published a book or website? Not a Journal

Random House Publication

Page Number: p. = One page cited / pp. = Multiple pages cited

p. 12

pp. 234-254

Date: Day Month Year

Jan. 2022

14 Sept. 1980 

5 May 1986

DOI: This is the permalink. Include with date accessed. Remove http.

doi: 10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.

Link: This is the website address from the browser, a URL (without the https://). Include with date you accessed it. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Hanging indentation: First line of citation should be as far left as possible and second or third lines should be tabbed in.

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic

listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180.

Works Cited: All of the citations you are using in a project / paper. Alphabetized by the first listed author's last name.