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Citation Guides

APA Style Guides and Examples

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Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association : the Official Guide to APA Style. Seventh edition.                                       Concise guide to APA style : the official APA style guide for students.

Examples of APA Citations

In-Text Citations​:

Scientists hold the "octopus as a counterexample to the established notion that where consciousness exists, it is unified" (Carls-Diamante et al., 2017, p. 1270). 

​​Godfrey-Smith (2016) takes a broad look at the origin of consciousness in the ocean. 

Reference or Ending Citations​:

​Godfrey-Smith, P. (2016). Other minds: The octopus, the sea, and the​ deep origins of consciousness. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.​

Carls-Diamante, S., Greenhill, S., & Sterelny, K.. (2017). The octopus and the unity of consciousness. Biology & Philosophy, 32(6), 1269–1287. 

Terms of Interest - APA

Author: Last name, comma, First initials. (separate names with commas and an & before the last name) If there is NO AUTHOR, use the organization that wrote the paper or whichever part of the citation should follow the (Date). 

Jane Sally Doe = Doe, J. S.

Jane Sally Doe and Mary Lane and Rich Tomas = Doe, J. S., Lane, M., & Tomas, R. 

No Author / Organization = American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

No Author = Article title

Date: Include in ( ) and end with a period

Jan 2022 = (2022).

Sept 14, 1980 = (1980). 

Exception** 3/5/21 = (2021, March 5) ** Newspaper dates include (Year, Month Day)

Title: Book Titles are Italicized, articles are not

Article title = Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. 

Book Title = Alexander the Great: A life in legend. 

Publication: Journals or Newspapers (Italicized) Not a Book!

The New York Times


Publisher: Who published a book or website? Include only the name of the publisher. Omit location information. Not a Journal

Random House Publication

Volume: Volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated. (Italicized)

Issue:  Issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year.  In ( ) , Not Italicized!

Journal started twelve years ago and published three times this year = 12(3)

Newspaper four years old and this is the fifth publication this year = 4(5)

Page Number: Only Include Numbers 



DOI: This is the permalink. Include by itself. (Links to an external site.)

Link: This is the website address from the browser. Include by itself. (Links to an external site.)

Hanging indentation: First line of citation should be as far left as possible and second or third lines should be tabbed in.

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic

listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180.

Reference List: All of the citations you are using in a project / paper. Alphabetized by the first listed author's last name.